endowments; combination of the office of the chief sadr and the chief qazi
(qazi-ul-qllzat), and hence head of the department of justice also. The Mughal
counter-part of the Delhi Sultanate’s secular judge (amir-i-dad) was the mir
adl, who was likewise responsible for implementing the qazis’ decisions.
There were also the mllhtasibs and muftis, who continued as subordinate
officers of the qazis.
Khan-i-Saman Head of the royal household and the royal karkhanas or
buyutats (workshops); his gradual ascendancy into prominence at the centre.
Initially he looked after only the royal household, while diwan-i-buyutat
looked after the workshops. But later he was made senior to the latter, thus
bringing the latter’s charge also under his supervision.
Others Apart from the above, there were many other ministers and officers
at the centre, though not as important as the above. They were: diwan-i-
khalisa (in-charge of crown lands), diwan-i-tan (incharge of jagirs), mushrif-
i-mumalik (accountant-general), mustauf-i-mumalik (auditor-general),
daroga-i-dak chauki (postmaster-general), mir-i-arz (in-charge of petitions),
mir-i-mal (in-charge of privy purse), mir-i-tozak (in-charge of ceremonies),
mir bahri (in charge of ships and boats), mir manzil (in-charge of quarters),
mir atish or daroga-i-topkhana (head of artillery).
    Besides, certain other officials worked in various parts of the empire
under the supervision of their respective heads at the centre. They were:
muhtasibs (enforced public morals), waqia navis (news reporters), khufia
navis (secret letter writers), harkaras (spies and special couriers), etc.
    Some elite or crack troops, called ahadis, were maintained directly by the
emperors without placing them under the mansabdars. Their equipment was
of high standard and each had to muster five horses. They were placed under
a separate diwan and bakshi.
Provincial Administration
Division and systematic organisation of the empire into different provinces or
subas by Akbar. Their number was 15 at the time of the death of Akbar, rose
to 19 under Shah Jahan, and 21 under Aurangzeb. Akbar established a
uniform pattern of administration in all the provinces.
Important Officials The governor          was known as subedar or sipah-salar,