Jahangir’s reign.
Complete Sovereignty Complete independence of the sovereign or the
king, both internally and externally. Internally, every institution and person
was subordinate to the king. Externally, the Mughal sovereign did not
recognise any superior authority like the caliph, which was done by the Delhi
Imperialism The desire of the Mughals to bring under their imperial rule
not only the whole of India but also territories outside India such as
Afghanistan, Central Asia, etc.
Dynastic Loyalties The Mughal administration was reared on dynastic
loyalties. Though in theory administrative posts were open to all, in practice
mostly those persons having royal origins were taken into administration.
And the government servants owed loyalty to the dynasties rather than to the
Central Administration
Emperor The form of Mughal government was despotic monarchy. The
king was the head of the executive, legislature, judiciary and the army. His
main duty was benevolence towards the subjects. The royal uzuk (small
signet ring) was affixed to farmans granting senior appointments, titles,
jagirs, etc. The only limits on the autocracy of the king were the nobility and
the ulema. Though in theory the nobles owed their position to the king, in
practice the king could not easily ignore the strength of the nobility.
Vakil Representative of the king and hence exercised all powers on behalf
and in the name of the king; decline of the powers of this office after Bairam
Khan, and continuation of this post mainly as a decorative one.
Wazir or Diwan In his capacity as diwan-i-kull (principal diwan), he was
the head of the revenue department. When there was no vakil, he acted as the
P.M. as well and hence called the wazir.
Mir Bakshi Head of the military department, and also became the
paymaster general after the introduction of the mansab system. With the
growth of the mansab system and the expansion of the empire, he became as
powerful, if not more than, as the  wazir, thus acting as a check on the latter.