those serving in Baikh, Badakshan and Kabul,
collected from ajagir) was less than thejama (stipulated or assessed revenue
from a jagir), on which his salary was actually fixed. So recognising this
difference and its inevitability the emperor classified Jagirs on the basis of
hasil into ‘8-month Jagir’ or ‘6-month Jagir’ i.e. the income from ajagir
assigned for one year actually yielded a revenue equal to what was expected
in 8 months or 6 months instead of 12 months. Thus the month scale was a
devise to express the ratio between the jama and the hasil, and hence gave
some relief in service obligations to mansahdars.
The Jagir System
Jagir or tuyul was a unit of land, whose revenues were assigned to a
mansabdar in lieu of his salary. The jagirs assigned in lieu of salary were
known as tankhwah jagirs. Besides, there were the watan jagirs (hereditary
possessions) of the autonomous chiefs, who, if in Mughal service, were also
granted the former type of jagirs in the imperial territory. It is shown that in
1647 about 60 per cent of the total jama of the empire was assigned to 445
mansabdars of 500 rank and above. Under the Mughals, apart from the jagir
lands, whose revenues went to pay the salaries of the mansahdars for their
services to the state, there were also the khalisa lands, whose revenues were
earmarked for the maintenance of the imperial court and the personal
expenditure of the emperor. Hence the jagir of the Mughal times was similar
to the iqta of the Delhi sultanate.
Like the iqta, the assignment of a jagir to a mansabdar did not confer any
hereditary rights to that jagir on the mansabdar. He could enjoy the revenues
of the jagir only as long as he held the mansah or official rank and rendered
services to the state. In other words, the jagirdars (holders of jagirs) owed
their position to the Mughal emperor, there being no practical difference
between the state and the emperor in Mughal times. The Mughal emperors
jealously guarded their privileged position against any hereditary claims to
the jagirs by the jagirdars by following the policy of frequent transfer of
jagirs of the jagirdars.
Thus, the jagir system was closely related to the mansab system. In fact it
was a subsidiary system of the      all-in-one mansab system. We should note