correlation between the mansabdars          rank and the number of horsemen
by the dual rank of zat and sawar from the 41st regnal year (1597). The
former determined the personal pay and status in the official hierarchy. The
latter determined the number of horsemen to be maintained and the salary for
the maintenance of those horsemen.
Three Categories Those who had sawar ranks equivalent to their zat ranks;
those whose sawar ranks were less than their zat ranks but not lesser than half
of their zat ranks; those whose sawar ranks were less than half of their zat
Other Features Direct subordination of mansabdars to the emperor (hence
contingents of big mansabdars were not formed by adding those of the
smaller ones); grant of mansabs of 5,000 and above only to the princes and
members of the royal family; mansab was not hereditary, but based on merit;
sawar rank was always normally either equal to or lower than the zat rank;
sawar rank was always preceded by the zat rank, the latter being more
important than the former; possibility of the existence of a zat rank without a
sawar rank, but never a sawar rank without a zat rank.
According to the Ain-i-Akbari, the ranks ranged from the dahbashi
(commander of 10) to the dah hazari (commander of 10,000), taking the total
to 66, though only 36 actually appear in the work.
Main Addition by Jahangir
Duaspa-sihaspa Rank Introduction of the duaspa-sihaspa (2–3 horses)
rank, literally meaning troopers having 2 or 3 horses; and hence related to the
sawar rank. Its grant by the emperor to those selected nobles as a special
favour. It was also given to those mansabdars engaged in military operations
and expeditions. This rank doubled the ordinary sawar rank, and hence
doubled the obligations and the privileges that went with it.
Further Changes by Shah Jahan
Rule of one-third, one-fourth It scaled down the obligations of the
mallsahdars. If a mallsahdar was serving in a province where his jagir was,
then his contingent should be equal to at least 1/3rd of his sawar rank; if
elsewhere then only 1/4th; for