Bairam to revolt. When he finally surrendered Akbar ordered him to resume
his pilgrimage. In 1561 Bairam was unfortunately assassinated by an Afghan
at Patan in Gujarat on his way to Mecca, but his four-year-old son, Abdur
Rahim, was sent to court.
Akbar’s conquests
Akbar’s ambitions of conquest and expansion were no different from those of
other imperialists. He conquered northern India from Agra to Gujarat and
then from Agra to Bengal and the borders of Assam. Next he strengthened his
north-west frontier and then proceeded to subdue the Deccan. He conquered
Malwa from Baz Bahadur (1561), Garhkatanga (Rani Durgavati and her
minor son, Bir Narayan, died fighting Mughals) and Gondwana (1564),
Gujarat (1572-3)—he built the famous Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri in
commemoration of this victory), Bihar and Bengal (1574–76), Kabul from
Hakim (1581), Kashmir and Baluchistan (1586), Sind (1591), Orissa (1592),
Qandahar (1595), Khandesh and a part of Ahmadnagar from Chand Bibi
(1593–1601).
    In 1585 Akbar moved to the north-west frontier in order to foil the
attempts of the ambitious Abdullah Khan Uzbek to seize Kabul, and stayed
there until Abdullah Khan’s death in 1598. During his fourteen years’
presence in the area, Akbar sent three expeditions from his camp at Hasan
Abdal. One left for Kashmir and another set out against Baluchistan. The
third force went to subdue the Afghan tribes and an Afghan religious
movement called the Raushaniyas. Akbar’s early military operations against
the Raushaniyas and the tribes were unsuccessful, and in 1586 his trusted
friend Birbal (a Brahmin) was ambushed by the Yusufzais and killed. Raja
Bhagawan Das, one of the generals of the Kashmir expedition, succeeded in
persuading Yusuf Khan, the last ruler of Kashmir, to surrender. Akbar,
however, refused to accept his terms and instead had him and his son
arrested. The army sent by Akbar conquered Kashmir in 1586, and it was
made a sarkar of Kabul province. The army sent against Baluchistan
persuaded the Baluchi chiefs to surrender and in 1590–1 Sind was also
conquered.
    Early in Akbar’s reign the Shah of Iran had captured Qandahar, so Akbar