the news service.
Currency reforms—issue of fine coins of gold, silver and copper of
uniform standard; standardisation of weights and measures.
Other reforms include collection of customs duty on goods only twice,
once at the time of entering the country and another at the time of sale of
goods; making the local headmen and zamindars responsible for the loss
of the goods of merchants on roads.
Akbar (1556-1605) Won Panipat II (1556); Regency of Bairam Khan
(1556-60); Military campaigns – Malwa (1561) to Khandesh (1601);
Religious Reforms, Tauhit-i-llahi & Sulh-i-kul; Rajput policy;
Administrative, revenue & military reforms; Patronage to Culture; Abul
Fazl"s Ain-i-Akbari & Akbar Namah; Badauni"s Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh.
Jahangir (1605-27) Carried out judicial reforms; Married Mihrunnisa
(Nurjahan); Peace with Ranas; Rebellions of Khusru, Khurram & Mahabat
Khan; Wrote Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; Patronage to painting.
Second Battle of Panipat Akbar received news of his father’s death during
his campaign against the Afghans in the Punjab. Though Bairam Khan
promptly crowned Akbar king, the latter’s position was quite precarious. The
Afghans drove out the Mughals from the Agra-Bayana region; Delhi, had
been seized by Hemu. In the second battle of Panipat (1556) against Akbar,
Hemu was about to win the day when an arrow pierced his eye; instantly
Hemu’s army broke and fled.
Bairam Khan’s Regency After appointing a renowned Iranian scholar,
Abdul Latif, as Akbar’s tutor, Bairam consolidated the administration of the
reconquered region as Akbar’s vakil (regent). His growing predominance
alienated the ‘Atkah Khail’, consisting of the families of Akbar’s relations.
Akbar was eighteen years old by 1560 and wished to rule independently. In
the same year, Maham Anaga, one of his step-mothers, managed to have