Kristtivasa Ojha (Ramayana)
and Mukundarama.
The first phase, from the 13th to 15th centuries, was marked by two main
forms—the prabandha (narrative poem) and the mukta (shorter poem).
Important poets of this phase were Sridhara and Bhima, exponents of the first
type and Rajasekhara, Jayasekhara and Somasundara who wrote in the
second type. The second phase, from the 15th to 17th century, was the golden
age of Gujarati literature. Major contributors during this period were
Narasimha Mehta, Bhalana and Akho.
Marathi literature emerged in the latter half of the 13th, century. A major
contribution was made by the saint-poets of the Natha cult (founded by
Gorakhanatha) such as Mukundaraja (Vivek-Sindhu). The saint-poets of the
Mahanubhava cult also contributed to Marathi prose and poetry (like
Lilachrita, Siddhanta Sutropatta, etc.). Other important contributors were
Jananadeva (Jnanesvari and Amritanubhava are sacred books for Marathis),
Eknatha, Tukaram (abhangas), Ramdas and Vamana Pandit. The 17th
century saw the compilation of secular poetry in the form of povadas (ballads
describing the warfare skills and selfless valour of the Marathas) and lavanis
(romantic works).
The literature of the Alvars or Vaishnava saints was known as Prabhanda,
the most important among them being Nalayiram (consisting of hymns
composed by 12 Alvars including Tirumalisai Alvar, Nammalvar, etc.). The
literature of the Nayanars or Saiva saints was known as Tevuram, important
Nayanars being Appar, Sambhandar and Sundrar. Their works were known
as Tirumarai. Kamban’s Ramayana, also called Ramanataka was written
during the Chola period. Sekkilar’s Tiruttondar Puranam, also known as
Periya Puranam, was composed during the Chola period. This is a biography
of 63 Nayanaras. Pugalendi’s Nalavenba       was composed in the 15th century.