teachings of orthodox Islam.
Other Muslim Sects Other movements were the Mahadawi movement,
started by Muhammad Madhi of Jaunpur (15th century): the Raushaniya sect,
founded by Bayazid Ansari of Jullunder (16th century); and the Shattari
order, introduced in India by Abdullah Shattari (15th century). These three
sects laid greater stress on the spirit of the religion rather than its form.
Masud Farid-ud-din (13th century), a mystic poet, was the pioneer of a new
school of poetry in Punjabi. A major contribution to Punjabi poetry towards
the end of the 15th century was made by Guru Nanak. Later Sikh gurus also
contributed to the enrichment of Punjabi. Guru Arjun compiled the Adi
Granth in AD 1604 and also wrote Sukhmani, one of the longest and greatest
of medieval mystic poems. The contribution of Guru Gobind Singh is also
invaluable. Several works of poetical romances, such as the Hir of Waris
Shah were also written. Punjabi prose made immense progress and a number
of religious and philosophical works were translated from Sanskrit to Punjabi
between AD 1600 and AD 1800.
The Hindi language originated between the 7th and 10th centuries. First stage
of Hindi literature, known as adi kala (1206–1318), was mainly bardic in
nature. Narapati Nalha and Amir Khusrau were the two major poets of the
adi kala. Second stage, known as bhakti kala (1318–1643) was the richest
period in the history of Hindi literature. Major contribution was made by the
nirguna and saguna saint-poets and mystic poets. Nirguna saint-poets were
Kabir, Guru Nanak, Dadu, Sundaradasa, etc. The saguna saint-poets were
Tulsidas (Ramcharitmanas), Surdas (Sur Sagara), Mirabai, etc. Mystic poets
were Jayasi (Padmavati), Nur Muhammad (Indravatz), Uthman (Chitravali),
etc. Several secular poets like Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan also contributed