mystic who lived in a khanqah or hospice along with his disciples. The link
between the teacher (pir) and the disciples (murids) was vital for the Sufi
system.
     Sufism arrived in India even before the establishment of the Turkish rule,
but the real migration of Sufis from the Islamic countries to India and their
spread to different parts took place only after the establishment of Turkish
rule. They divided the whole country among themselves as their religious
spheres of influence. According to Abdul Fazi, there were 14 orders in the
Mughul period.
Main Sufi Orders in India
Chisti Order Its founder was Shaikh Moin-ud-in Chisti (12th and 13th
century). Other leaders were Hamid-ud-din Nagauri (13th century), Qutub-
ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki (12th and 13th century), Nizam-ud-din Auliya (13th
and 14th centuries) and Shaikh Salim (16th century). They established
themselves at Ajmer and other parts of Rajasthan and in parts of Uttar
Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and the Deccan. They believed in
simplicity and poverty; possession of private property was considered as an
impediment to the development of the spiritual personality and hence they
lived mainly on charity. It became popular by adopting musical recitations
called sama to create a mood of nearness to god.
Suhrawardi Order Its. founder was Shaikh Shihab-ud-din Suhrawardi
(12th and 13th century). Other leaders were Baha-ud-din Zakariya (13th
century) and Rukn-ud-din Abul Fath (14th century). They established
themselves mainly in north-west India. They did not believe in leading a life
of poverty, and so accepted direct service of the state by holding important
posts in the ecclesiastical department.
Oadri Order Its founder was Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad (12th
century). Important leaders in India were Shah Nizamat Ullah (first important
Qadri to come to India; he died in AD 1430) and Nasir-ud-din Muhammad
Jilani (the most important Qadri; he organised it effectively and died in
1517). This order was dominant in Sind and Lahore. Prince Dara Shikoh was
its follower.
Naqshbandi Order The prominent           leaders of this order were Khwaja Baqi