It was probably due to this feeling that many great works of Indian
philosophy were translated or summarised into their language in the Muslim
courts. Muslim preachers and saints were attracted towards Hindu
philosophies like Yoga and Vedanta and the sciences of medicine and
astrology. The Hindus similarly borrowed the Arabic calendar, etc.
Hinduism could not completely absorb Islam, but was in turn, influenced by
it in two ways. On one hand, the proselytising zeal of Islam strengthened
conservatism in the orthodox circles of the Hindus. With a view to fortifying
their position, they increased stringency of the caste rules. The most famous
scholars of this type were Madhava of Vijayanagara and Vishveshwara, the
famous commentator on Manu.
On the other hand, some of the democratic principles of Islam made their
way into the social and religious systems of the Hindus, and led to the rise of
liberal movements under some saintly preachers. With some differences in
details, all these reformers were exponents of the liberal bhakti cult, the
message of which was universal.
Both the Hindu and Muslim exponents preached the fundamental equality of
all religious and the unity of Godhead, they held that the dignity of man
depended on his actions and not on his birth, protested against excessive
ritualism and formalities of religion and domination of the priests, and
emphasised simple devotion and faith as the means of salvation for one and
all.
Mystic Movements in Islam
Meaning
Sufis They were early Muslims mystics. They were persons of deep devotion
who were disgusted by the vulgar display of wealth and degeneration of
morals following the establishment of the Islamic empire.
Basic Doctrine Wahadat-ul-wujud or the ‘Unity of the Being’ was their
basic doctrine. It identified the unity of the haq and the khalq, that is, the
creator and the created.
Organisation
The Sufis were organised into      orders called silsilahs. These orders were