opposed to the others who were varakaris.
Impact and Significance of Bhakti Movements
Development of Regional Literature The most important effect of these
movements is seen, apart from their religious contribution, in the
development of literature. The movements gave impetus to the development
of the vernaculars. Ramananda and Kabir preached in Hindi, while
Namadeva taught in Marathi. The political leaders under the influence of
these saints, sponsored translation of many important works right from the
Vedas to Ramayana and Mahabharata. Many great commentaries were
written especially on bhakti yoga as preached in Bhagavad Gita.
Growing Understanding and Accommodation                   Despite fundamental
difference between Hinduism and Islam, a need arose to come to a common
understanding, in which these saints were highly successful. The very fact
that Nanak was more influenced by Islam stands testimony to it. Hinduism
and Islam came very close, as evident in some of the social practices adopted
by them. In short, the essence of the movements lay in the fact that by
making religion a personal experience, transcending all barriers, they created
a feeling of ecstasy wherein everyone could participate and bypassed the
ritualistic rigmarole where the priest always dominated.
Long Interaction and Mutual Influence In the wake of Muslim invasions,
definite social and religious ideas which differed fundamentally from those of
Hindustan entered into this country and a complete absorption of the invaders
by the original inhabitants was not possible. The political relations between
these two groups were often strained. But whenever two civilizations came
together, they were bound to influence each other. Thus, through long
association, the growth of Indo–Muslim communities took place. Through
the influence of several liberal movements in India, the Hindu and Muslim
communities came to imbibe each other’s thoughts and customs, and, beneath
the ruffled surface of storm and stress, there were currents of mutual harmony
and toleration in different spheres of life. Famous Muslims scholars lived and
laboured in India during the medieval period, and they helped the
dissemination of various ideas of Islamic philosophy and mysticism. The
wholesome spirit of mutual veneration and toleration found expression in the