conquered it in 1561 from Baz Bahadur, son of Sujaat Khan who had been
governor of Malwa under Islam Shah Sur.
Malik Raja Faruqi (1389–99) was the founder of the principality of
Khandesh, located in the Tapti valley. Appointed earlier as its governor by
Firoz Shah Tughluq, he set himself up as an independent ruler following
Firoz’s death and the subsequent confusion in the Delhi sultanate. Although
he met reverses at the hands of the Sultan of Gujarat, he strengthened himself
by entering into a matrimonial alliance with the Sultan of Malwa. As his
successors used the title of Khan, their territory came to be known as
Khandesh. Nasir Khan (1399–1437), the son and successor of Malik Raja,
captured the strong fortress of Asirgarh from a Hindu chieftain. When he
invaded Gujarat in alliance with Malwa, he was defeated and had to
acknowledge the suzerainty of Ahmad Shah of Gujarat. He also suffered
defeat in a battle with Ala-ud-din Ahmad of the Bahmani kingdom. After
Nasir’s death Khandesh suffered further decline due to the weak rule of two
of his successors, Miran Adil Khan I (1237–41) and Miran Mubarak (1441–
    Next came the reign of Adil Khan II (1457–1503), who was a capable and
enterprising ruler. He established his suzerainty on the Hindu rulers of
Gondwana and Garh-Mandala. But when he repudiated his allegiance to
Gujarat and withheld the annual payment of tribute, Mahmud Begarha led an
invasion into Khandesh and compelled him to fall in line. However, he is
remembered for his administrative reforms and for freeing his kingdom from
the depredations of the Bhils and Kolis. He strengthened Asirgarh and also
built the famous citadel of Burhanpur. The later rulers of the Faruqi dynasty
(Daud Khan, Ghazi Khan, Adil Khan III, etc.), were quite incapable. Taking
advantage of the factional strife within Khandesh, the Sultans of Gujarat and
the Nizam Shah is of Ahmadnagar frequently interfered in its internal affairs.
Ultimately Akbar annexed it in 1601.
Pandyas of Madurai