exercised independent power for some years and formally assumed
independence in 1401–02. Though Dhar was his capital, he began to fortify
Mandu as a centre of defence. Alp Khan, son and successor of Dilawar,
became the next ruler with the title of Hushang Shah (1406–35). He was once
defeated and taken prisoner by Muzaffar Shah of Gujarat. Later he led two
unsuccessful expeditions to Gujarat, but was successful in his raid of Jajnagar
(Orissa). He tried to establish his authority over those regions which lay on
the periphery of his kingdom. He exacted tribute from the ruler of Kherla
(south of Gondwana) captured Kalpi. He made Mandu his new capital and
founded a new town, which was named after him as Hoshangabad. Besides,
he was a patron of architecture and Islamic learning, and followed a liberal
policy towards his Hindu subjects. But his son and successor, Muhammad
Shah (1435–36), was an incapable ruler, and was duly overthrown by one of
his nobles.
     The Ghurid dynasty was replaced by the Khalji dynasty in 1436. Mahmud
Khalji I (1436–69), the founder of the new dynasty, was the most powerful of
all the Sultans of Malwa, which reached its greatest extent during his reign.
He advanced towards Delhi, but was compelled to retreat by the invasion of
his own kingdom by the Sultan of Gujarat. He also invaded Mewar, Gujarat
and the Bahmani kingdom, although they did not yield him any permanent
gains. He even came into conflict with the Sharqi kingdom. Although
constantly engaged in war, he was a careful administrator. He encouraged
agriculture, trade and commerce. Besides, he was a great builder. The last
ruler of the Khalji dynasty was Mahmud Khalji II (1511–31), who was weak
and dependent on the support of his nobles. There was constant friction
between his Hindu and Muslim nobles. A Rajput named Medini Rai played
the leading role, for some years. Encouraged and helped by Rana Sanga,
Medini Rai showed defiance to the Sultan. On one occasion the Rana himself
defeated Mahmud and took him prisoner but later reinstated him on the
throne. Meanwhile the traditional hostility between Malwa and Gujarat
continued. And in 1531 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat captured Mandu and
annexed it to his dominions.
     During the next 30 years (1531–61), Malwa passed through several
political changes. It was captured by the Mughal emperor Humayun from
Bahadur Shah. After Humayun’s       departure from Malwa, a former officer of