he was a great patron of arts and architecture. He founded the city of
Ahmadabad which replaced Anhilwara as the capital of Gujarat. Muhammad
Shah (1442–51), the next ruler was a mild king. Then came the reign of
Ahmad Shah II (1451-59), who invaded Mewar in the reign of Kumbha but
without much success.
     The greatest Sultan of Gujarat was, however, Mahmud Shah I (1458–
1511), who is popularly known as ‘Begarha’ because he conquered the two
strong Rajput forts (garh) of Gimar and Champaner. He is equally famous for
his ravenous hunger. He fought against several Muslim and Hindu rulers,
including Mahmud Khalji I of Malwa. Under him the kingdom reached its
highest extent, having as its boundaries Arabian Sea on the west, Khandesh
on the south, Malwa on the east, and Jalor and Nagaur in the north. He was
also a great patron of architecture. Interesting references to him are found in
the works of Varthema (Italian) as well as Barbosa (Portuguese). He faced
problems only from the Portuguese and negotiated peace with them after
some struggle. Muzaffar Shah II (1511–26) was a small time but capable
ruler. He succeeded in foiling the Portuguese attempts of seizing Diu, and
fought against Rana Sanga of Mewar as an ally of Mahmud Khalji II of
Malwa. He was followed by two incompetent rulers, both of whom ruled
only for brief periods.
     Then came the reign of Bahadur Shah (1526–37), who was the last
energetic Sultan of Gujarat. He conquered and annexed Malwa, and after
Rana Sanga’s defeat and death at Khanwa, sacked Chittor. At the fag end of
his reign, Humayun invaded Gujarat and occupied a part of it. But when
Humayun retreated to tackle Sher Khan in the east, Bahadur recovered his
lost territory. Meanwhile, the Portuguese, who had earlier entered in to an
alliance with him (1535) and gained some concessions, started posing
problems to him, and he fell into the sea in a scuffle with the Portuguese on
board a ship while conducting negotiations with them. With Bahadur’s death
the glory of independent Gujarat also vanished. For his successors were mere
puppets in the hands of the turbulent nobles and its extinction by Akbar was
only a matter of time.
Malwa
The province of Malwa, like that of Gujarat, became an independent kingdom