later as Jaipur state, was ruled by the
of Dhundhar, founded by Dullah Rai in the late 10th century. Kakil Deva, son
and successor of Dullah, captured the fort of Amber in 1037 from the Minas
and made it his capital. In the early days of its history, it was under the
suzerainty of Mewar, but acquired political importance only in the 14th
century. It was, however, only in the Mughal period that the state gained real
prominence. Bharamal, one of its rulers, voluntarily recognised the
overlordship of Akbar, and along with his son and grandson (Bhagwan Das
and Man Singh respectively) contributed greatly to the expansion and
consolidation of the Mughal empire.
    The state of Bikaner was ruled by a junior branch of the Rathor dynasty
of Marwar. Its founder was Bika (1464–1504), the fifth son of Jodha of
Marwar. He was also the founder of the city of Bikaner (in northern
Rajasthan) which became his capital. His successors, Nara and Lumakarna
respectively, made the state one of the formidable powers of Rajasthan.
    The state of Jaisalmer was ruled by a comparatively older dynasty of the
Bhattis. They built various lakes and temples in their territory during the
course of their rule of about four centuries.
    The state of Ranthambhor was ruled by the descendants of the famous
Prithviraja Chauhan (12th century). Among these Chauhans of Ranthambhor
the most notable ruler was Hammir Deva, who ruled between 1283 and 1301.
But later the Chauhans were overthrown by another dynasty, the Hadas, who
became prominent in the Mughal period.
The rich province of Gujarat occupied a prominent place among the
provincial kingdoms which arose on the ruins of the Delhi sultanate. Zafar
Khan, appointed as governor of Gujarat in 1391 by one of the later Tughluqs
(Muhammad bin Firoz Tughluq), exercised independent power from the
beginning. But he assumed the insignia of royalty and took the title of
Muzaffar Shah only in 1407-08. He started a long drawn out struggle with
Malwa which became a prominent feature of the history of western India
later. He defeated and captured Hushang Shah of Malwa and temporarily
occupied his kingdom. Ahmad Shah I (1411–42), grandson and successor of
Muzaffar, fought against the Sultans of Malwa and Khandesh as also some of
the Hindu rulers like those of Idar, Dungarpur, Kotah, and Bundi. He