defend Orissa from Muslim invaders. But after his death, Orissa was
conquered and annexed by Sulaiman Kararani of Bengal.
The city of Jaunpur (UP) was founded by Firoz Shah Tughluq and named,
after his predecessor, Jauna Khan alias Muhammad bin Tughluq. After
Firoz’s death, Jaunpur became one of the earliest provinces to declare
independence. Malik Sarwar (1394–99), a eunuch entitled Khwaja Jahan, was
appointed its governor by Mahmud Tughluq (last Tughluq); but following the
confusion caused by Timur’s invasion he threw of allegiance to Delhi.
Though he did not assume the royal title, he acted for all practical purposes as
an independent ruler. As he had been given the title of ‘Sultan-us-Sharq’
(chief of the east) by Mahmud, his dynasty came to be known as the Sharqi
dynasty. He extended his authority over Awadh as well as parts of the Doab
region. He also brought Bihar and Tirhut under his control. Malik Sarwar was
succeeded by his adopted Qaranfal under the title of Mubarak Shah (1399–
1402). Mubarak was, thus, the first member of the Sharqi dynasty to assume
the title of king and to strike coins and cause the khutba to be read in his
    Ibrahim Shah (1402–40), the younger brother of Mubarak, was the
greatest ruler of the dynasty. He fought constantly against Delhi ruled by
Mahmud Tughluq and later by the Sayyids, but no result came out of this. He
also tried to capture Bengal, but failed. However his reign was remarkable,
from the point of view of progress in cultural fields as well as economic
prosperity. He beautified Jaunpur and built many magnificent buildings there.
A new school of architecture, known as Jaunpuri or Sharqi School, came into
existence. He patronised several scholars and a number of books like
Hashiah-i-Hindi, Fatwa-i-Ibrahim Shahi, lrshad, etc., were written.
    Mahmud Shah (1440–57), the son and successor of Ibrahim, captured the
fort of Chunar, but his efforts to conquer Kalpi failed. He also attacked Delhi,
but then ruler of Delhi, Bahlul Lodhi, defeated him. Muhammad Shah (1457–
58), the son and successor of Mahmud, also fought against Bahlul Lodhi but
with no useful ‘result. He was, however, murdered by his own brother,
Hussain Shah (1450–1505), who was the last ruler of the Sharqi dynasty. He
entered into a life and death struggle against Bahlul Lodhi, who succeeded in