Standards of Living
The accounts of foreign travellers speak of the high standards of living of the
upper and middle classes. Abdur Razzak, for instance, remarks: ‘The country
is so well populated that it is impossible in a reasonable space to convey an
idea of it. In the king’s treasure there are chambers with excavations in them,
filled with molten gold forming one mass. All the inhabitants of the country,
whether high or low, wear jewels and gilt ornaments in their ears and around
their necks, arms, wrists and fingers.’
     The splendour of the capital city bears testimony to the wealth which was,
however, the monopoly of only a section of the population. But the prices of
articles were low and the minimum necessities were probably not beyond the
means of the common people. However, producers, mainly agricultural
producers, apparently got inadequate prices for their produce. Another main
defect of the economic system was that the common people had to bear the
burnt of taxation, which was quite heavy. And the local authorities sometimes
adopted oppressive methods of collection.
Bahmani Kingdom
Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah (1347–58), also known as Hasan Gangu and
whose original name was Ismail Mukh, founded the Bahmani kingdom with
Gulbarga as its capital.
     There were a total of fourteen Bahmani Sultans, important among them
being: Alauddin Hasan (the founder); Muhammed Shah I (1358–77) who was
the immediate successor of Hasan; Taj-ud-din Firoz Shah (1398–1422)
considered greatest among them all; Ahmad Shah Wali (1422–35) who
transferred the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar and whose reign marked the
end of the ‘Gulbarga Phase’ of Bahmani kingdom and the beginning of the
second phase, called the ‘Bidar Phase’.
Mahmud Gawan He was the vakil as well as the wazir of Muhammad
Shah III between 1463–81. The Bahmani kingdom saw a resurgence under