cultivated land. It was fixed on the basis of crop cultivation and the quantum
of yield obtained. Generally 1/6th of the gross produce was collected as
revenue. But sometimes it was raised to fifty per cent.
Items of Expenditure As suggested in the Amuktamalyada, the
expenditure of the state was divided into four parts—charities and personal
expenditure of the king, maintenance of horses, military conquests and
security of the empire.
Judicial Administration
King administered justice impartially. He presided over the sabha, the
highest court of appeal. Regular courts for administering justice were also in
different parts of the empire. They were headed by hierarchy of officials.
There were also village courts, caste panchayats and guild organisations to
dispose of petty offences like violation of caste rules and rules of trade.
Dharmasastras generally formed the basis on which cases were decided.
Harsh punishments were inflicted. For instance, decapacitation, mutilation,
and throwing to elephants were quite common.
Military Administration
There was a well organised and efficient standing army. It consisted of the
cavalry, infantry, artillery and elephant crops. High-breed horses were
procured from foreign merchants. Different grades of officers were there in
the army, the top grades being the nayakas or palegars. In addition to the
regular standing army, armies of vassal kings, governors and feudal levies
assisted the king whenever necessary. In fact, some of the nadaprabhus (in
charge of nadus or sub-districts) like the gaudas of Bangalore practically
protected the boundaries from foreign invasions and even helped in
suppressing the defiant provincial governors and vassals. Ordinary soldiers of
the royal army were usually paid in cash, but big officers like palegars were
granted territory (amaram) with a fixed revenue in lieu of their salaries.
Social Conditions
Caste System