defeated the Hoyasala ruler in a battle and executed him. The dissolution of
the Hoyasala kingdom enabled Harihara and Bukka to expand their tiny
principality. By 1346, the whole of the Hoyasala kingdom had passed into the
hands of the Vijayanagar rulers. The struggle between the Vijayanagar rulers
and the Sultans of Madurai, however, lasted for about four decades, and it
was only by 1377 that the sultanate of Madurai was completely wiped out.
The Vijayanagar empire then comprised the whole of south India upto
Ramesvaram, including the Tamil country as well as Kerala.
Vijayanagar-Bahmani Conflict
Clash of interests in three areas The first contentious area was the
Tungabhadra doab, which was the region between the rivers Krishna and
Tungabhadra. The second was the Krishna-Godavari delta, which was very
fertile and with its numerous ports controlled the foreign trade of the region.
In the third one, that is the Marathwada country, the main contention was for
the control of Konkan and the areas which gave access to it.
Beginning of the Conflict It started on a large scale in 1367 during the
reign of Bukka I. When he assaulted the fortress of Mudkal in the disputed
Tungabhadra doab and slaughtered the entire garrison except one man. When
this news reached the Bahmani Sultan, he was enraged and launched a
successful campaign to recapture Mudkal despite the opposition of the
Vijayanagar forces. He then crossed the Tungabhadra and defeated the
Vijayanagar ruler in a battle. The war dragged on for several months, but the
Bahmani Sultan could neither capture the Raja nor his capital. Finally both
sides were exhausted, and concluded a treaty which restored the old
positions.
Attempt at Eastward Expansion The Vijayanagar empire now embarked
upon a policy of expansion towards the eastern sea coast under Harihara II.
This new policy of expansion consequently led the Vijayanagar empire into
fresh conflicts. It was responsible for the alliance of the Bahmani kingdom
with Warangal which lasted for about 50 years and which was a major factor
in the inability of the Vijayanagar empire to overrun the Tungabhadra doab
or to stem the Bahmani offensive in the area. However, it was to the credit of
Harihara II that he was able