his spiritual mentor, Nizamuddin Auliya, that he chooses to appreciate
some aspects of Hindu religion and customs in Nuh Sipihr. In fact,
through an anecdote in Hasht-Bihisht, he preaches religious toleration by
narrating a dialogue between a Muslim Haji going to Mecca and a
Brahmin pilgrim going to Somnath. Amir Khusrau"s poetry offers a
powerful metaphor for secular thinking and living.
He wrote poetry in Persian as well as what he called Hindvi, a
combination of local Bhojpuri and Persian, which later evolved into Hindi
and Urdu. He composed songs and riddles in the more common spoken
dialect of the time, called ‘Dehlavi Hindi’. Though he himself did not take
these seriously, they appealed greatly to the common people. Jawaharlal
Nehru in his book ‘Discovery of India’ has written, "Khusrau"s enduring
fame in India rests on the riddles, quibbles and songs written by him."
His contribution to the Hindi language and Hindi poetry is
acknowledged by the critics of even today. The language he used later
developed into Hindustani. Many of his poems are used till today in
Hindustani Classical music as bandishes and as ghazals by Ghazal singers.
His deep and growing attachment with Nizamudddin Auliya took him
away from more worldly ambitions and he turned more and more to
spiritual seeking and ecstasy. When Nizammudin Auliya passed away
Khusrau tore his clothes and blackened his face and went to his master"s
grave. In a few months" time, in 1325 AD, Khusrau too passed away and
was buried near that grave as desired by the master. These graves are a
place of pilgrimage for both Hindus and Muslims to the present day.
NEW SOCIO-CULTURAL TRENDS
Mobility and Cultural Mixing
Initiation of World’s Most Significant Migratory Pattern Brutal Mongol
attacks on cities and towns across southern Eurasia initiated centuries of
migration into India. Warriors, scholars, mystics, merchants, artists, artisans,
peasants and workers followed ancient trade routes and new opportunities
that opened up in the new domains of Indian sultans. Migrants poured down