Valuable historical material is available in some works of the famous
reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
• Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq wrote a brief account of his reign in a
book entitled Futuhat-i-Firuz Shahi. Another anonymous work,
entitled Sirat-i-Firuz Shahi, was written probably under his patronage
and at his dictation.
• There is no contemporary work on the history of the Lodis. But three
historical works written in the seventeenth century—Tarikh-I-Salatin-
i-Afghana by Ahmad Yadgar, Makhzan-i-Afghana by Niamatullah,
and Tarikh-i-Duadi by Abdullah—deal exclusively with the history of
Afghan rule in India.
• The history of the Sultanate is also dealt with by later historians like
Nizamuddin, Badauni (sixteenth century) and Ferishta (seventeenth
• Several Persian chronicles deal with the history of the provinces
under independent Sultans.
• For Gujarat, there are several works including Mirat-i-Sikandari by
Sikandar bin Muhammad (seventeenth century) and Mirat-i-Ahmadi
by Ali Muhammad Khan (eighteenth century).
• Ghulam Hussain Salim narrated the history of Bengal in his Riyaz-us-
Salatin (eighteenth century).
• The history of Kashmir is described in Mirza Haidar Dughlat’s
Tarikh-i-Rashidi and Haidar Malik’s Tarikh-i-Kashmir (seventeenth
FOREIGN TRAVELLERS’ ACCOUNTS
The accounts of foreign travellers throw interesting light on the political
and socio-economic conditions in different parts of the country. They
came from different countries and usually wrote with detachment about
what they saw, but they often made mistakes because they were ignorant
of Indian languages.
There was a continuous stream of these travellers from the thirteenth to the
sixteenth centuries. The Italian traveller Marco Polo visited south India
towards the close of the thirteenth century.
The best known of all the foreigners who visited India during the pre-