modern historians.
  The obscurity of his language—sometimes too broken to yield a clear
  sense, sometimes marked by contradictions—creates difficulties to
  modern interpreters.
     •   However, he gives important details about the reigns of the Mameluk
         and Khalji Sultans. One special feature of his work is that it provides
         interesting glimpses of social and cultural life.
Shams-i-Siraj Afif Afif belonged to a family of officials. He was
employed by Firuz Tughluq in the revenue department. His object was to
complete Barani’s unfinished work. Though his Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi was
named after his patron, it was written after his death—indeed after the virtual
fall of Tughluq dynasty as a result of Timur’s invasion.
     • Afif’s work begins where Barani’s narrative ends; it is a systematic
         first-hand account of Firuz Shah Tughluq’s reign.
     • It has its defects. He is fond of jingling, rhyming prose and many of
         his observations are platitudes.
     • But, being confined to a single reign, the work provides a
         concentrated narrative; moreover, it gives many details on
         administration as also on the biographies of the principal nobles.
Ahmad Sirhindi Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi’s work, Tarikh-i-Mubarak
Shahi, named after Sultan Mubarak Shah of the Sayyid dynasty, begins with
the reign of Muhammad of Ghur and ends in 1434.
     • He says that he gathered from other historical works, facts relating to
         the period up to the coronation of Firuz Shah Tughluq and after that
         event, whatever was witnessed by him was related.
     • He supplements the meagre information given by Afif for the later
         years of Firuz Shah Tughluq’s reign.
     • He is the only dependable authority for the period 1400–34. He was a
         careful and apparently an honest chronicler.
     • Unlike the previous historians who were Sunnis, he was a Shia.
Other Historians