differ from those in the south. But there is little doubt that the differentiation
was largely due to the incorporation of Perso-Arabic modes, airs and scales.
Persian Literature
Poetry The most notable Persian writer of the period was Amir Khusrau
(1252–1325). He took pride in being an Indian. He wrote a large number of
poetical works, including historical romances. He experimented with all the
poetical forms and created a new style of Persian which came to be called
Sabaq-i-Hind or the style of India. He praised the Indian languages including
Hindi (Hindavi). He was also an accomplished musician and took part in
religious musical gatherings (samas) organised by the famous Sufi saint,
Nizamuddin Auliya. Other important Persian poets were Mir Hasan Dehlawi,
Badra Chach, etc.
Historical works Apart from poetry a strong school of history writing in
Persian developed in India during the period. The most famous historians of
the period were Zia-ud-din Barani, Shams-i-Shiraj Afif and Isami.
Translations Zia Nakshabi was the first to translate Sanskrit works into
Persian. His book Tuti Namah (book of the parrot), written in the time of
Muhammad Tughluq, was a Persian translation of Sanskrit stories which
were related by a parrot to a woman whose husband had gone on a journey.
Zia also translated the old Indian treatise on sexology, the Kok Sastra, into
Persian. Later, in the time of Firoz, Sanskrit books on medicine and music
were translated into Persian. Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir had the
famous historical work, Rajatarangini, and the Mahabharata translated into
Persian. Sanskrit works on medicine and music were also translated into
Persian at his instance.
Persian Chronicles
General Merits There are numerous contemporary and semi-contemporary
Persian chronicles dealing with different Muslim dynasties which give us
reliable details on topography and more or less dependable chronology, in
addition to connected accounts of political and military events. Some of them
are general histories of the Muslim world in which medieval Indian history