But this no longer applied in the later times.
transfer of governors was a rare occurrence but in later times this was freely
done. In Alaud-din Khalji’s reign, according to Barani, there were twelve
    The governor was called nayim or wali. Below the provincial governor
there was a provincial wazir, a provincial ariz and a provincial qazi. Their
functions corresponded to those of similar dignitaries at the centre. Like the
Sultan at the centre, the provincial governor combined in his hands the
powers of maintaining law and order, control over the local army, realisation
of state dues and provision for justice.
Local Government
The provinces were divided into shiqs and below it into paraganas. The shiq
was under the control of the shiqdar. The paragana, comprising a number of
villages was headed by the amil. The village remained the basic unit of
administration and continued to enjoy a large measure of self-government.
The most important official in the village was the headman known as
muqaddam or chaudhari.
The principal achievement of the Delhi Sultans was the great systematisation
of agrarian exploitation and the immense concentration of the revenues thus
obtained. Immediately after a conquest, settlements were made with the
members of the defeated aristocracies. Hence the land revenue then was no
more than the tributes fixed on subjugated rulers. Introduction of radical
reforms in the revenue system came only after a century of experience and
    After consolidating their position in India, the Delhi Sultans classified the
land into three categories—iqta land, i.e. land assigned to officials as iqtas;
khalisa land or crown land, i.e. land which was under the direct control of the
Sultan and whose revenues were meant for the maintenance of the court and
the royal household; and lnam land (also known as madad-i-maash or
suyurghal or waqf land), i.e. land assigned or granted to religious leaders and
religious institutions.