Amir-munshi He was the head of the records department, known as diwan-
i-insha. The farmans of the Sultan were issued from his office, while all high
level correspondence also passed through his hands.
Barid-i-mumalik He was the head of the information and intelligence
department. Only a nobleman who enjoyed the fullest confidence of the ruler
was appointed the chief barid. The large number of barids, who were posted
in different areas, informed the Sultan of what was going on through the chief
    There were officers connected with the court and the royal household.
Vakil-i-dar looked after the royal palace and personal attendants of the
sovereign. Barbak looked after the royal court by maintaining the dignity of
the court and assigning to nobles a place there in accordance with their rank
and status. Amir-i-hajeb scrutinised all visitors to the court and presented
them before the sovereign according to court etiquette. Amir-i-shikar
organised royal hunts and all areas where the Sultan went hunting were under
his direct control and authority. Amir-i-majlis made arrangements for
assemblies, feasts and special celebrations. Sar-i-jandar was the chief
bodyguard of the Sultan.
    He commanded several jandars (royal body- guards and cavalrymen)
who were together called hasham-i-qalb or afwaj-i-qalb, and were clearly
distinguished from the hasham-i-atraf, the name given to the troops posted in
the provincial headquarters and the garrisons. The naqib-ul-nuqaba (chief
usher) and his assistants (naqibs) announced the Sultan’s orders to the
soldiers and also proclaimed the Sultan’s presence in the royal cavalcade.
Provincial Government
The whole kingdom was divided into a number of provinces, known as
wilayat or iqlim, and tributary states. Little attempt was made to interfere in
the internal affairs of the tributary states as long as they did not threaten the
integrity of the empire. But the provincial administration under the Sultans
was neither well organised nor efficient.
    In the earlier stages, a nobleman was assigned unconquered or semi-
conquered territory as iqta and he was acknowledged the governor of all the
land he could subdue by force.