Consequently, many elements of the Rajput
Muslim Political Ideas
Theological Basis Muslims believe that Islamic society and government
should be organised on the basis of divine injunctions of the Quran. The
sayings and doings of Prophet Muhammad, collectively known as hadis,
began to be supplemented with the above. The ulema (Muslim theologians)
gave various rulings on the basis of the Quran and the hadis to meet different
situations and problems, which are together known as the sharia (Islamic
Secular Basis Moreover, zawabit (rules and regulations framed by the
Sultans) were also used for a smooth and efficient running of the
Allah-Prophet Relationship According to the Quran, the real master and
sovereign of the whole universe is Allah. Allah has sent to all lands, through
the ages, his prophets for the transmission of his message, Muhammad being
the last one. While it is the duty of the governed to obey the ruler, it is
equally the duty of the ruler to discharge his functions efficiently.
Caliphate In principle, the entire Muslim fraternity should have only a
single monarch. But when the caliphate or the empire of the caliphs became
very extensive and disintegrative forces began to gain the upper hand, the
ulema or Muslim jurists developed the theory of governors by usurpation and
said that whom the caliph did not oppose he approved.
    Similarly they held that only an elected head could be the ruler. But when
the caliphate became a hereditary monarchy they evolved a new doctrine of
election. Now election by eleven or five or even by a single person enjoying
the confidence of the people was regarded as election by the people. This
legalised nomination by a ruling sovereign as election by the people. In the
absence of any widespread uprisings against a ruler it was held that
acquiescence was tantamount to approval or election by the people.
  Most of the Sultans kept up the pretence of regarding the caliph as the
  legal sovereign while they themselves        were the caliph’s representatives.