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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 1201Book's First Page
Sikander (1489–1517) Despite the fanatical Afghan attachment to racial purity, one of Bahlul’s wives, who was a Hindu goldsmith’s daughter, won the support of the Lodhi nobles for her son Nizam Khan. The new Sultan, assuming the title of Sikandar, crushed Husain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur and liquidated the Rajput uprisings in the neighbouring region. Bihar was also seized. From 1506 to 1517 the Sultan devoted all his energies to capturing Gwalior (ruled by the Tomar ruler, Raja Man Singh), but could capture only Chanderi; Gwalior and Malwa remaining unconquered. Sikandar enhanced the prestige of the sultanate without alienating the Afghan nobility. He also took a keen interest in the development of agriculture. He introduced the gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields. But this measurement was confined to the khalisa lands and not extended to the iqta lands. He regularly examined the price schedules for the markets. What Ala- ud-din Khalji achieved in the field of market control through excessive use of force, Sikandar is said to have accomplished through persuasion. Ibrahim (1517–26) Leading Afghan nobles made strong efforts to undermine the Sultan’s autocracy at the very beginning itself by forcing him to make his younger brother Jalal the independent ruler of the Jaunpur region. Civil war broke out between the two brothers, which ended in the imprisonment and later the execution of Jalal. Meanwhile the civil war had provided Rana Sanga of Mewar with the opportunity to make inroads into the Lodhi territories as far as Bayana near Agra. It also enabled some of the Lodhi nobles to conspire against the Sultan and invite Babur to invade India. ADMINISTRATION The government established by the Turks was a compromise between Islamic political ideas and institutions on the one hand and the existing Rajput system of government on the other.