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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 1197Book's First Page
bandagan (department of slaves). The Sultan ordered that jobs be created for the unemployed. Free hospitals were established, as was a marriage bureau offering assistance to poor Muslim parents in meeting wedding expenses for their daughters. All the above welfare measures and public works were carried out through another new department, viz. diwan-i-khairat. Finally all positions were made hereditary, irrespective of competence, and the iqta administration was completely decentralised to appease the nobles. Military Campaigns Firoz led several feeble military expeditions to Bengal, Kangra and Sind but only to assert the tottering central authority. Between 1353 and 1358 he made efforts to recover Bengal, but succeeded only, in negotiating a peace settlement and persuading its ruler Sikandar to accept his suzerainty. The Sultan however did better in his Orissa campaign, whose ruler Raja Gajpati of Jajnagar in Orissa had allied himself with the rebellious Bengal Sultans. Firoz seized Cuttack and destroyed the Jagannatha temple at Puri. He then attacked Nagarkot in the Kangra region. The Raja submitted and offered to pay tribute. The Sultan collected 1,300 Sanskrit manuscripts from the Jwalamukhi and other temples. Firoz next marched to Thatta in lower Sind. After initial failures he succeeded in establishing his authority over its rulers. The last years of the Sultan’s reign were marked by a precipitous decline in central political control. Firoz abdicated in 1387, crowning Prince Muhammad king. Two months later Firoz’s slaves, numbering about a lakh, rebelled, forcing Muhammad to flee. Firoz appointed his grandson, Tughluq Shah II, his heir, and died one year later at the ripe age of 82. Later Tughluqs (1388–1414) After Firoz’s death the sultanate disintegrated further. The Sharqi kingdom of Jaunpur came into existence in 1394. Malwa and Gujarat also broke away. When Timur arrived on the scene in 1398–99, the fate of the Tughluq dynasty was sealed. After crossing the Indus, Timur met no serious opposition in the Punjab. Though Delhi submitted without much of a fight, Timur’s army sacked it for three days and indiscriminately massacred both Hindus and Muslims. Travelling through Haridvar, Nagarkot and Jammu, he withdrew from India in March, 1399. His invasion, though merely a plundering raid, delivered the death blow to the Tughluq dynasty.