revolt in succession during this period. The
western Bengal had become independent by then. In 1347 Hasan Gangu
established the Bahmani kingdom.
    Muhammad’s health declined rapidly and all his efforts at keeping the
sultanate together ended in failure. For three years the Sultan concentrated on
chasing the elusive Taghi (a rebel officer) and reorganising the provincial
administration of Gujarat. Taghi took shelter with the Sumras of Thatta. The
Sultan therefore moved towards Thatta but in 1351 he died on the way.
According to Badauni, death liberated the Sultan from his people and freed
them from him.
Firoz Tughluq (1351–88)
The long reign of Firoz (37 years) can be seen in two phases. The first phase
of about 20 years is marked by the reversal of the centralising policies of the
previous regime and restoration of peace and prosperity. It also saw the return
of the sharia laws, which were in fact inscribed by the Sultan on an octagonal
tower near the Firozabad Jami mosque. Wazir Khani-Jahan Maqbul, an
Islamicised Telangani Hindu, successfully maintained the prestige of the
Sultan during this period. The second phase of 17 years witnessed inanition
and evident decline in the strength and prosperity of the Sultanate.
Administrative Reforms The loans advanced by the previous
administration for agricultural purposes were written off. Compensation was
paid to the heirs of all those whom Muhammad had executed, and the letters
of gratitude obtained from them were deposited in a box at the head of the
deceased Sultan’s cenotaph. Painstaking reforms were made in the
assessment and collection of land taxes. The Sultan instituted a six-year
survey of crop production, enabling him to fix permanently the estimated
revenue (Jama) of the Sultanate at six crore seventy five lakh tankas. Newly
dug wells and irrigation canals improved cultivation. The special tax on some
28 items of urban trade and commerce deemed un-Islamic was abolished.