bronze (or copper) coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins.
  The scheme was designed to fill the gap in the gold and silver reserves.
  The goldsmiths began to forge the token coins on a large scale. Land tax
  was paid in the token currency, and other commercial transactions also
  utilised it. Foreign merchants naturally stopped all business dealings with
  India. In order to combat the mounting economic chaos, the Sultan
  stopped the circulation of the token currency and was forced to pay
  genuine gold coins in exchange, even for the forged ones. According to
  Barani, the heaps of bronze coins rose like mountains near Tughluqabad
Enhancement of Land Revenue In 1328–29, in order to overcome
financial difficulties, Muhammad increased the land revenue demand to fifty
per cent of the gross produce on the Doab farmers. According to Barani, the
farmers set fire to their grain barns and abandoned their fields. Baran
(Bulandshahr), Barani’s home town along with other towns witnessed open
revolt. Though the rebellion was ruthlessly crushed, the Sultan realised that
adequate relief measures and the promotion of agricultural production were
the only solution to the problem. Consequently huge sums were advanced as
takkavi loans to enable the cultivators to buy seed, to sink wells, and to
extend cultivation.
Agricultural Reforms During his stay in Delhi (1338–44) the Sultan
introduced new regulations to improve farming. An agriculture ministry
called the diwan-i-kohi was established to bring barren land under cultivation.
Opportunists and adventurers signed written bonds promising to cultivate
barren land but they spent the money on personal needs.
Outbreak of Rebellions When Sayyid Ahsan Shah, the governor of Mabar,
rebelled, the Sultan marched against him. But at Bidar many of his officers
died of bubonic plague, and the Sultan himself fell seriously ill and was taken
back to Daulatabad. The rebellious Ahsan Shah, who remained undefeated,
succeeded in founding the independent Madurai sultanate. The foundation of
the Vijayanagar kingdom in 1336 and the subsequent independence of
Warangal and Kampili were the most severe blows to the Sultan’s prestige.
After his return to Delhi the Sultan stayed at Svargadvari near Kanauj. Four
different governors broke into