organized against him. The conspiracy proved successful and exactly 36
  days after the death of Alauddin Khilji he was murdered along with his
  associates. Though ambitious and intriguing he proved himself to be a
  great general who carried the banner of Islam to the Deccan States of
  India.
    Ala-ud-din’s greatest achievement was the conquest of the Deccan and
the far south, which were ruled by three important Hindu dynasties—the
Kakatiyas of Warangal, the Hoyasalas of Dvarasamudra and the Pandyas of
Madurai. Ala-ud-din did not annex their countries but fleeced their treasuries
and forced them to pay annual tributes. In 1306–7 he sent Malik Kafur to
chastise Raja Ramadeva of Devagiri for withholding tribute. After a feeble
resistance Ramadeva surrendered. In 1309 Malik Kafur launched his
campaign against Warangal, whose ruler, Prataparudra Deva II, ultimately
surrendered. An enormous booty was collected. After resting for some time,
Malik Kafur marched against the Hoyasala kingdom. Raja Vira Ballala 1lI
was taken by surprise and agreed to become the Sultan’s vassal. Here also
vast quantities of booty were seized. Kafur next marched against the Pandya
kingdom. Its ruler Vira Pandya fled the capital, enabling Kafur to seize
immense booty. Kafur was accorded a royal welcome and was made the
malik naib.
    When Ala-ud-din fell ill in 1315, Kafur, as regent, seized the reins of
government. Before his death, Kafur had nominated Shihab-ud-din, Ala-
uddin’s six year old son, as ruler, and imprisoned Mubarak Khan, another of
Ala-ud-din’s sons. Finally Kafur was killed by Ala-ud-din’s loyal bodyguards
in order to save their late kings’ family from annihilation. Although illiterate
himself, the Sultan enjoyed the company of poets such as Amir Khusrau and
Amir Hasan.
Mubarak (1216–20)
After he was released from prison, Mubarak worked as regent for his brother
for some time but soon captured the throne. Mubarak could have ruled for
many years but for his debauched lifestyle. Being a homosexual he fell
deeply in love with two Islamicised       Baradus (Hindu) brothers, Hasan and