barids (intelligence officers), and the munhias (Sultan’s secret agents)
  submitted their independent reports on these markets to the Sultan. Even a
  minor violation of the rules was not tolerated. Every merchant was
  registered with the commerce ministry and had to sign a bond
  guaranteeing a regular supply of the goods in which they traded. The
  prices fixed for the Delhi market were also applied in the provincial
  capitals and towns.
Other Economic Reforms His other financial reforms included increase of
land revenue to 50 per cent of the gross produce and elimination of all
middle-men; resumption of several types of land grants such as inam, and
waqf, appropriation of four-fifths share of the war booty (khums) to the state,
leaving only one-fifth to the soldiers; creation of a new department, the
diwan-i-mustakhraj, to enquire into revenue arrears and to collect them.
Ala-ud-din’s Conquests
Ala-ud-din’s army brought him success both against the Mongols and in his
schemes of conquest. The early part of his reign was marked by successive
Mongol invasions. The first two invasions by the Mongol army were beaten
back, but in 1297 the third invader, Qutlugh Khwaja, came up to Kili near
Delhi. Zafar Khan, the Sultan’s commander, fell fighting the enemy, but the
Sultan won the day. In 1303 the Mongols again reached Siri but were
defeated. Two years later the Mongols marched as far as Amroha but were
again beaten back. Their invasion in 1306 was stopped near the Ravi.
    Ala-ud-din sent an army in 1299 under the command of his brothers
Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan to conquer Gujarat. Ala-ud-din’s army
besieged Anhilwara, the capital of Raja Karan. While the Raja and his
daughter (Deval Devi) escaped, his wife (Kamla Devi) was captured and sent
to Delhi where the Sultan married her. The Hindu eunuch Kafur Hazardinari,
whom the Sultan later made malik naib, was also taken from his master.
Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan next attacked Hamir Deva of Ranthambhor.
Nusrat Khan was killed, and only after the Sultan’s arrival the siege was
brought to a successful conclusion. In 1302–03 an army was sent against
Prataparudra Deva of Warangal,     who, however, succeeded in defeating the