agriculture improved, leading to further urbanisation.
    But Balban’s own, slave, Tughril, whom he had made governor of
Bengal, gave him a rude shock by rebelling. Tughril was ultimately captured
by Balban’s army and his severed head sent to the Sultan. Unfortunately for
the Sultan, however, a Mongol army suddenly appeared in 1285.
Muhammad, Balban’s eldest son, attacked the Mongols, but was killed in the
battle. It was a mortal blow to Balban. The Sultan hid his misery and
unremittingly discharged his duties, although it is said that he wept
throughout the night for his dead elder son.
Kaiqubad (1287–90)
When Balban died, the powerful kotwal of Delhi, Fakhr-ud-din, raised
Kaiqubad (one of the grandsons of Balban) to the throne. But Kaiqubad sank
into debauchery and was unable to give up his dissipated lifestyle. He was
soon struck with paralysis and was finally killed in a pitiable manner by the
Khalji maliks. Thus the Ilbari rule came to an end.
Jalal-ud-din (1290–96)
His reign witnessed the invasion of the Yadava kingdom by his nephew, Ala-
ud-din, governor of Kara. When the news of Ala-ud-din’s victory reached
Delhi, the Sultan wanted his nephew to surrender the booty (ghanima) which
had been acquired from Devagiri. Pretending to be sorry that he had invaded
Devagiri without obtaining prior approval, Ala-ud-din succeeded in
persuading his uncle to visit him at Kara. When Jalal-ud-din landed, Ala-ud-
din prostrated himself at his uncle’s feet, but signalled the assassins who were
awaiting his orders. They immediately killed the Sultan; Ala-ud-din (original
name—Ali Gurshasp) usurped the throne, immediately after that.
                   CHALISA         OR CHAHALGANI