Slave as well as son-in-law of Aibak, he came to power by deposing Aram
Baksh. Though he was the real consolidator of Muslim power in India, he
commenced his career as a sari-jandar (head of the royal bodyguard) and
controlled the prized iqta of Badaun. Since he belonged to the IIbari tribe, the
successors are known as the Ilbari Turks.
During the first ten years of his reign, Iltutmish concentrated on securing
his throne from rivals. In the meanwhile Genghis (also called Chengiz) Khan,
the Mongol, had become supremely powerful and established a vast empire.
When the last Khwarazm ruler, Jalal-ud-din, defeated a Mongol force in the
Ghazni region in 1221, Genghis rushed with lightning speed to avenge the
defeat and chased Jalal as far as the Indus. Jalal, despite his best efforts, could
not persuade Iltutmish to send reinforcements. Fortunately for Iltutmish and
Jalal, Genghis had to turn back his attention to his home region.
Born around 1165 and first known as Temujin, Genghis was the son of the
chief of the Yakka Mongols. When he was 10, his father was poisoned and
he became chief. However, the tribe deserted him, and he was forced to
live alone, and survived by digging roots for food and keeping sheep.
Three years later, he was able to form alliances and organise an army. He
became famous for his strict discipline and training, and for the superiority
of his army. In 1179, Temujin was married to a young woman named
Bortei, but had to abandon her when their camp was invaded. Two months
later he rescued her.
Genghis’ armies took over neighbouring tribes, and he was soon ruler of
Mongolia. He then set out to conquer China. China was made up of three
main empires, Xi Xia, the Qin, and Na-Chung. Xi Xia had only 100
warriors and was easily defeated. However, to defeat the Qin Empire it
was necessary to break through the Great Wall of China. Genghis’ next
battle was against Beijing, capital of the Qin Empire. He demolished much