Madrasa, Kuru, Yavana, Avanti, Yadu, Gandhara and Kira bowed down
respectfully before Dharmapala.
Assertion (A): In the early medieval period most of the craftsmen and artisans
were classified as untouchables.
Reason (R): The Smriti writers of this period regard handicrafts as unclean
Assertion (A): In the Rajput society the dominant position was held by those
who drew their sustenance from land without working on it.
Reason (R): In the Rajput period the appropriation of the major share of the
surplus production by the non-producers resulted in production at subsistence
Assertion (A): North Indian temples were the main targets of Muslim
invasions in the 11th century AD.
Reason (R): The best contribution of Rajput rulers lies in their promotion of
art and architecture.
Assertion (A): The regionalisation of Indian culture had begun with the
emergence of a number of regional kingdoms in the early medieval period.
Reason (R): A number of regional languages started producing a rich
literature which challenged the monopoly of Sanskrit literature.
Assertion (A): The enormous increase in the number of samantas in the early
medieval kingdoms created serious problems for their rulers.
Reason (R): Contemporary texts describe the samantas as potential enemies
of the king and their contingents as the weakest link in the king’s defences.
Assertion (A): The territorial radiation of the regional gods of the bhakti cults
was similar to the territorial sway of the early medieval Indian kings.
Reason (R): In both cases their power was most concentrated at the centre
and diminished towards the periphery.
      1. (c)    2. (b)       3. (d)        4. (a)         5. (c)  6. (b)  7. (d)
      8. (a)    9. (c)     10. (b)       11. (d)