Madrasa, Kuru, Yavana, Avanti, Yadu, Gandhara and Kira bowed down
respectfully before Dharmapala.
Assertion (A): In the early medieval period most of the craftsmen and artisans
were classified as untouchables.
Reason (R): The Smriti writers of this period regard handicrafts as unclean
professions.
Assertion (A): In the Rajput society the dominant position was held by those
who drew their sustenance from land without working on it.
Reason (R): In the Rajput period the appropriation of the major share of the
surplus production by the non-producers resulted in production at subsistence
level.
Assertion (A): North Indian temples were the main targets of Muslim
invasions in the 11th century AD.
Reason (R): The best contribution of Rajput rulers lies in their promotion of
art and architecture.
Assertion (A): The regionalisation of Indian culture had begun with the
emergence of a number of regional kingdoms in the early medieval period.
Reason (R): A number of regional languages started producing a rich
literature which challenged the monopoly of Sanskrit literature.
Assertion (A): The enormous increase in the number of samantas in the early
medieval kingdoms created serious problems for their rulers.
Reason (R): Contemporary texts describe the samantas as potential enemies
of the king and their contingents as the weakest link in the king’s defences.
Assertion (A): The territorial radiation of the regional gods of the bhakti cults
was similar to the territorial sway of the early medieval Indian kings.
Reason (R): In both cases their power was most concentrated at the centre
and diminished towards the periphery.
                                 ANSWERS-II
      1. (c)    2. (b)       3. (d)        4. (a)         5. (c)  6. (b)  7. (d)
      8. (a)    9. (c)     10. (b)       11. (d)