fate. The Chandellas of Khajuraho and the Rajput rulers of Gwalior
     were also defeated and their treasures looted. Mahmud did not
     hesitate to mete out the same treatment to the Muslim ruler of Multan,
     whose territory blocked his way. The Hindus were particularly
     affected by the destruction and looting of their holy places at
     Thaneshwar, Mathura and Kanauj.
  •  The climax of these systematic campaigns was Mahmud’s attack on
     the famous Shiva temple at Somnath on the southern coast of
     Kathiawar in Gujarat. After a daring expedition across the desert,
     Mahmud reached this temple in 1025 AD. Chronicles report that about
     50,000 Hindus lost their lives in defending the temple. Mahmud
     destroyed the Shiva lingam with his own hands and then, is said to
     have returned through the desert with booty of about 20 million gold
     dinars (about 6.5 tons of gold). Many of his troops did not survive the
Purpose and Nature of His Campaigns