gallantly but fell fighting the enemy.
    •  Jaisingha, the crown prince, offered some resistance at the fort of
       Brahmanabad, but was forced to take to heel. Muhammad also
       captured Alor and a few other forts which completed the Arab
       conquest of Sind. After conquering Sind, Muhammad proceeded to
       attack Multan in 713 AD.
    •  The subsequent recall and execution of Muhammad made Jaisingha to
       reoccupy Brahmanabad. But Junaid, the new Arab governor of Sind,
       defeated and executed Jaisingha. Later, Junaid sent several
       expeditions to the inferior of India, but all of them proved to be
       unsuccessful. The Indian kings who are said to be mainly responsible
       for this failure, were Pratihara Nagabhatta I and Chalukya
       Vikramaditya II.
    •  In the meanwhile, the powers of the Abbasid khalifas began to
       decline, and consequently, they failed to keep control over their
       distant provinces. Sind became free from the control of the khalifas in
       871 AD.
    •  But even then, the Arabs in Sind failed to unite themselves, and their
       kingdom came to be divided into two parts, lower and upper Sind,
       with Mansura and Multan respectively, as their capitals. Thus, there
       were two Arab kingdoms in Sind till the invasions of Muhammad of
Its Significance
    •  It had a very limited effect on the politics of India. The Arabs did not
       break the military strength of India, and therefore, could not pave the
       way for the conquest of India by Islam. But they did draw the Indians
       and the Arabs closer to each other.
    •  The Arabs were the first to establish an Islamic state in India, and
       their administration of Sind brought about a novelty in the history of
       Islam. Islam divided all non-Muslim into two categories.
    •  The people belonging to the first category were called zimmis and
       were allowed to live under the protection of an Islamic ruler after
       payment of a religious tax called the jizya.