gallantly but fell fighting the enemy.
• Jaisingha, the crown prince, offered some resistance at the fort of
Brahmanabad, but was forced to take to heel. Muhammad also
captured Alor and a few other forts which completed the Arab
conquest of Sind. After conquering Sind, Muhammad proceeded to
attack Multan in 713 AD.
• The subsequent recall and execution of Muhammad made Jaisingha to
reoccupy Brahmanabad. But Junaid, the new Arab governor of Sind,
defeated and executed Jaisingha. Later, Junaid sent several
expeditions to the inferior of India, but all of them proved to be
unsuccessful. The Indian kings who are said to be mainly responsible
for this failure, were Pratihara Nagabhatta I and Chalukya
• In the meanwhile, the powers of the Abbasid khalifas began to
decline, and consequently, they failed to keep control over their
distant provinces. Sind became free from the control of the khalifas in
• But even then, the Arabs in Sind failed to unite themselves, and their
kingdom came to be divided into two parts, lower and upper Sind,
with Mansura and Multan respectively, as their capitals. Thus, there
were two Arab kingdoms in Sind till the invasions of Muhammad of
• It had a very limited effect on the politics of India. The Arabs did not
break the military strength of India, and therefore, could not pave the
way for the conquest of India by Islam. But they did draw the Indians
and the Arabs closer to each other.
• The Arabs were the first to establish an Islamic state in India, and
their administration of Sind brought about a novelty in the history of
Islam. Islam divided all non-Muslim into two categories.
• The people belonging to the first category were called zimmis and
were allowed to live under the protection of an Islamic ruler after
payment of a religious tax called the jizya.