philosophy became more and more identified
     The most outstanding personality of the new Vaishnavite school of
thought was undoubtedly Ramanuja, who combined Sankara’s Advaitavada
with the Vaishnava Pancharalra theology (it claimed that Vishnu is the very
foundation of the universe). The impact of Ramanuja’s writings and his long
service as head priest of the famous Vishnu temple at Srirangam made his
ideas widely known among the Vaishnavites and he is justly regarded as the
founder of Srivaishnavism.
     The further development of Vaishnavism is marked by the rise of the
Krishna cult. Krishna, instead of being only one of the incarnations of
Vishnu, came to be considered as the highest god himself. The Bhagavat
Purana (composed in the 10th or 11th century AD), which is perhaps the
greatest of all Puranas, was devoted to this elevation of Krishna. The
mysticism of the Krishna cult found its most splendid expression in
Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda (AD 1200). In the 15th and 16th centuries, the
Krishna cult was popularised by a number of bhakti saints like Nimbarka,
Vallabha, Chaitanya, and Mirabai.
     Saivism also gave rise to many popular sects, like the Pratyabhijnas, the
Spandasastras, the Mattamayuras, the Agamantins, the Suddhasaivas, and
the Virasaivas. Though they all agreed that the ‘Great God’ (Mahadeva) was
the very foundation of the universe, they gave different answers to the great
question about the relation of god to the individual soul and to inanimate
  The most remarkable linguistic development of the early medieval period
  was the gradual emergence of several regional languages. In the Indo-
  Aryan speaking belt, this development was through the intermediary stage
  of apabhramsa. Apabharamsa represented the last stage of the Prakrits
  which, however, throughout this period, continued to yield a voluminous
  literary output, particularly among the Jainas. Traces of apabhramsa have
  been found in very early literary   works, but considered to be a dialect till