against religious competitors. Several texts indicate massacres of
  Buddhists and Jains.
• Under Chola kings, worshippers of Shiva (Shaivites) prospered at the
  expense of Vishnu worshippers (Vaishnavas), triggering battles
  among sectarian forces. Bhakti devotionalism and sectarian
  competition challenged brahmin elite proponents of traditional
  Sanskrit religion as it attracted more patronage from ruling dynasties.
  To cultivate a popular following, many rulers in the south supported
  Vaishnava (Alvar) and Shaivite (Nayanar) bhakti poets.
• The most celebrated Hindu intellectual of the early medieval age,
  Shankaracharya (788–820), made his name during his short life by
  developing a Sanskrit high-culture rendition of Tamil devotional
  poetry, by reconciling Shaivism and Vaishnavism through a non-
  dualist advaita philosophy that drew on the Upanishads and
  incorporated elements from Buddhism, and by travelling from Kerala
  to Kashmir and back again to establish monastic centres. Shankara
  helped to absorb and normalise popular devotionalism in elite
  brahmin high culture.
• Populist challenges to the spiritual power of brahmins were mostly of
  local importance, but a major regional movement emerged in the
  Kannada-speaking interior of the peninsula, where the bhakti saint
  Basava established a sect called Virashaivas (also called Lingayats)
  with a non-brahmin jangama priesthood. Virashaivism attracted royal
  patronage and many adherents from merchant communities and
  became regionally dominant in northern Karnataka, where Lingayats
  remain predominant till today.
• Popular devotionalism attracted thousands of passionate believers to
  temples and pilgrimage sites. This made public patronage increasingly
  complex and loaded, because sects could provide decisive military
  and financial support for dynastic contenders. Multiple and layered
  sovereignties continued among the gods, nonetheless, in the
  established medieval manner.
• Dynasties gave privileges and funds in various forms to various
  religious institutions and their leaders simultaneously. Popular
  movements made such