1206, Laksmanasena was driven out of Bengal by the Turkish
     conqueror, Bakhtyar Khalji, who shifted state patronage to Islam.
  •  After the Khalji conquest, there was a general drift of patronage for
     Islam to eastern regions of Bengal, where the Senas had not uprooted
     Buddhists; while Vaishnava Hindus received support from merchants,
     landowners and local rulers in the western regions of Bengal.
     Brahmin influence in Bengali society was enhanced from Sena times
     onward by a distinctly Bengali system of hypergamy in which high
     caste women married Kulin Brahmin men who fathered children with
     multiple wives; this produced a multi-caste elite that included
     merchants, landowners, and administrators who flourished under
     medieval regimes.
  •  From Khalji times onward, Muslim converts and migrants populated
     new agricultural settlements in eastern Bengal, where Vaishnavism in
     particular, and Hindu temples, arts, poetry and music in general, also
     flourished under the patronage of Hindu landlords, merchants, and
     administrative elites. Like multiple sovereignties in medieval
     domains, multi-religious cultures developed where patronage
     sustained diverse religious institutions.
  •  The Himalayan kingdom of Nepal was a Buddhist stronghold ruled by
     Hindu kings. Kingdoms around Katmandu became a mixing ground
     for Hindus from the south and Buddhists from the north, and like
     dynasties in Bengal, they made multi-cultural patronage a long-
     standing religious tradition.
Western India
  •  In the western plains—in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Malwa, and
     Bundelkhand—medieval Hindu dynasties of Kalachuris, Chaulukyas,
     Paramaras, and Chandellas also patronised Jains, who were prominent
     among merchants.
  •  Hindu and Jain cultural features blended into one another. Jain temple
     worship and Hindu-Jain marriage became common. In Gujarat
     particularly, it became difficult to say where Jainism ends and
     Hinduism begins.