•  Buddhism and Islam were the most active along routes of trade and
      migration that ran from one end of Asia to the other. In the sixth
      century, Buddhists received most of the patronage available in
      Afghanistan, the upper Indus basin, and Himalayan regions from
      Kashmir to Nepal.
   •  Moving eastward across Central Asia, Buddhists then established
      themselves firmly in Tibet, China, and Japan.
   •  After the eighth century, however, eastward and southern migrations
      by Arabs and Turks from West and Central Asia shifted religious
      patronage to Islam in Afghanistan, along the Indus, in Punjab, and in
      Kashmir.
Srilanka and Southeast Asia
   •  But Buddhist monks had a permanent political base at the hub of the
      Indian Ocean trade in Sri Lanka, and from the eighth century onward,
      they won state support in regions from Burma south into Southeast
      Asia.
   •  In Java, early medieval kings patronised Hinduism; in the ninth
      century, Buddhists supplanted Hindus at court, though Hindus
      remained influential in royal circles in Bali, alongside Buddhists.
   •  By the tenth century, Arab traders were expanding their operations in
      the Indian Ocean. Muslim centres multiplied along the peninsula and
      on coastal Sri Lanka, and merchant patronage for Islam drew local
      rulers away from Buddhism around many Southeast Asian ports in the
      medieval period.
Eastern India
   •  In Bengal, Buddhists were well established in the early medieval
      period and the Pala dynasty supported them for four hundred years.
      But after Hemantasena (a Pala tributary) declared his own
      independent Sena dynasty, his successor, Vijayasena (1095–1158)
      defeated the Palas, pushed Sena armies west across Bengal and
      northern Bihar, patronised Vishnu worship, and expelled Buddhists.
      Vaishnava Hinduism flourished          in Sena domains. The last Sena,