on the legitimacy of kingship to enhance his royal power. This was done by
means of highlighting his divine mission and his ritual sovereignty. The
Brahmins were instrumental in providing the necessary ideology for this
Settlements of Brahmins Many documents recording land grants to
Brahmins show very clearly their role in providing the necessary ideology. In
the Gupta times such land grants had often been made in distant, uncultivated
areas where the Brahmins were obviously meant to act as missionaries of
Hindu culture. But from the 10th century onwards land grants followed a
different pattern. Rulers of the regional kingdoms adopted the practice of
granting land or revenues of whole villages to Brahmins sometimes, even in
the territories of their samantas. Such a grant was really at the expense of the
samanta rather than the king who gained a loyal follower, because the
Brahmin would look upon the royal patron as his true benefactor. There was
another important change in the policy of granting land to Brahmins. While
earlier, single families or at the most small groups had received such grants,
the records of the 10th and 11th centuries suddenly mention large number of
  The new function of land grants became even more obvious in the south in
  the context of the rise of the great royal temples which symbolised the
  power and religious identity of the respective realm. From the 11th to 13th
  centuries, such temples were built in various regional kingdoms. The best
  examples of such large temples are Kandariya Mahadeva temple at
  Khajuraho, Rajarajesvara temple at Tanjore, Udayesvara temple at
  Udayapur, Lingaraja temple at Bhuvanesvar and the Jagannatha temple at
  Puri. These temples were evidently meant to be a counterweight to the