that they were employed for the training of elephants and horses respectively
for the purpose of war. There was an officer called pattasahini attached to the
royal establishment. The king was usually accompanied by a number of
officers called angarakshas and a body of lenkas or companions-at-arms. The
special duty of the angarakshas was to guard the person of the king, while
the lenkas fought side by side with the king.
     Besides the village, the administrative divisions fell into two main
classes, the sthala and the nadu. The former consisted of a group of villages
ranging perhaps from ten to sixty in number, while the latter was formed out
of a combination of several sthalas. The villages were invariably looked after
by village officials, called ayagars. In addition to the tax-free lands granted
to them, the ayagars received allotments of grain, called meras, from the
villagers. The ayagars were generally twelve in number, though this number
occasionally varied. They were karanam, reddi, talari, purohita, blacksmith,
goldsmith, carpenter, potter, washennan, barber, vetti and shoe-maker.
     The karanam like the northern patwari kept the accounts and plans of the
village including the area of the cultivable, the non-cultivable, the
wastelands, gardens and pastures. He was closely associated with reddi in the
administration of the village. The reddi was the headman of the village whose
main duty was to collect the taxes due to the state. The talari was the village
policeman, while the purohita was the village priest. The carpenter and the
blacksmith made and the agricultural implements. The vetti or the waterman
attended to various menial tasks and regulated the flow of water for
irrigation. Most of the ayagars, excepting the karanam, reddi and talari, were
primarily the servants of the village and had no direct connection with the
state.
Revenue Administration The government derived the bulk of its revenue
from land tax. Next in importance were the taxes levied on trade and industry
and the assessments of forests on their yield of timber. Land was divided into
dry (veli-volamu or velichenu), wet (niru-nela) and garden areas (tomta-
bhumi) for purposes of assessment. The monarch had his own land, called
racha-doddi or racha-polamu, in each village in the district. Tax was
collected both in kind and cash but the tax on dry and garden land was always
paid in cash. Tax collected from wet land was called para, i.e. one-eighth of
the rent, and that from dry land  known as pangamu which means one-fourth