or Prataparudra, grandson of Rudramadevi
territories and at the same time dispatched separate expeditions against his
allies. Rudramba herself led a large army, defeated Ambadeva and recovered
Tripuraantakam and the surrounding country.
     Rudramadevi was undoubtedly one of the greatest of the rulers of the
Andhra country who took an active part in the government and led the army
in person on occasions of emergency.
Prataparudra The main event of Prataparudra’s reign was the series of
Muslim invasions of Warangal which began with an unsuccessful raid in
1303 and ended twenty years later with the eclipse of the Kakatiya kingdom.
Besides the inscriptions of the Kakatiya monarchs, two books—the
Nitisastra-muktavali of Baddena, who was a feudatory of Ganapati and
Rudramba, and the Sakalanitisammatamu of Madiki Singana, written in the
first quarter of the 15th century—throw light on the subject. A king should,
according to the Nitisara of Prataparudra, grant frequent audiences to his
subjects at prescribed times. The king was assisted in the government of the
kingdom by a large number of ministers like mahapradhanas, pradhanas,
preggedas, amatyas and mantrins.
     Though the number of ministers in the service of the king is not known, it
seems that the king was assisted by 18 tirthas or ministers, viz. mantrin,
purohita, mantri-janadhyaksha. sainadhi-nayaka, sannidhatri, atavika.
prasastra, ayudha-nayaka. vyavaharika, samahartri. dandapala. durgapala,
prantapala, pradeshtri, karmantika. antarvamsikadhikara. yuvaraja and
dauvarika. Officials of all class, both civil and military, were divided into
niyogas or categories, 72 in number, referred to collectively as bahattara.
They were under the supervision of a high-ranking officer of state called the
     The administration of the kingdom was organised on a military basis. The
Kakatiyas divided their territories among a number of military chiefs known
as nayakas. The nayakas obtained grants of lands from the Kakatiya
monarchs to enable them to maintain their status. In addition to the annual
payments of tribute to the king, the nayakas had to maintain for the service of
                                  of troops. This nayaka system became a
the king a stipulated number