abhangas by the saint-poets like Namadeva, Muktabayi and others. The
cause of Marathi literature got a further impetus from the rise of the
Mahanubhava sect, whose founder Chakradhara insisted that his followers
write in Marathi and not in Sanskrit. Among the literary works (mostly on
religious subjects) may be mentioned the Sisupalavadha of Bhanubhata,
the Rukminisvayamvara of Narendrapandita, the Nalopakhyana of
Nrisimhakesari and the Lilacharita of Mahendra.
Kakatiyas of Warangal
Early Rulers Their earliest known chief was Beta I, a feudatory of the
Western Chalukyas in the first half of the 11th century. He ruled over the
Koravi country in AP Beta was succeeded by his son Prola I. The loyalty of
Prola I to Chalukya Somesvara I earned for him Anumakonda-vishaya, as a
perma- nent fief. Prola I thus became the founder of the Kakatiya principality.
Prola I was succeeded by his younger son Beta II, who was in turn succeeded
by his son, Durganripati.
Prola II The reign of Prola II, the next ruler, forms an important landmark
in the history of the Kakatiyas. He threw off the overlordship of the
Chalukyas and carved out for himself an independent kingdom which was
destined to grow under his successors into a powerful kingdom embracing the
whole of the Andhra country.
Rudradeva His achievements are described in his Anumakonda
inscription. According to it, he defeated a number of neighbouring princes
and extended his dominion right up to the banks of the Godavari. Turning to
the south, Rudradeva defeated four kings of the Telugu Choda origin. He also
invaded Vengi, but his authority in this area was challenged by the chiefs of
Velanadu. In the last year of his reign he came into conflict with the Seunas
(Yadavas) of Devagiri which resulted in his defeat and death.
Rudradeva was a patron of art and letters. He built magnificent temples in
his dominions, dedicated to the god Siva. It is probable that he built the
famous Thousand-Pillar temple at Anumakonda. He founded near his capital
Anumakonda, a new town called Orugallu, modern Warangal. which became