The kingdom was divided into several provinces which were
administered through provincial governors. They were known as
mandalesvara or mahamandalesvara. The most common territorial divisions
were called nadu, vishaya or kampana and thana. Nadu was a bigger
administrative unit. Kampana or vishaya was a part of nadu. Thana was a
territorial division used as a military cantonment. The village official or
gavunda looked after the welfare of the villagers. He was assisted by
senabova (karanika) or the accountant. Besides the villages, there were
bigger towns and cities described as nagara. The nagara was administered
by a commercial guild. Nagaradhyaksha was the chief officer of such places.
The large city had three general assemblies each called mahajana, one for the
general problems of the city as a whole, another dealing with problems
relating to the Brahmin inhabitants, while a third controlled and regulated
matters affecting the mercantile community.
The major source of revenue was land revenue. The different land taxes
to be paid were siddhaya, dasavanda, niruni-sunka and melivana. Siddhaya
was a fixed tax levied not only on land but also on houses and shops.
Dasavanda was one-tenth portion of tax payable to the authority from out of
the yield from land or revenue. Niruni-sunka was the water cess to be paid by
the farmer. Melivana may be taken to mean the tax levied on ploughs.
Sources of income included other kinds of taxes like commercial taxes,
professional taxes, social and community taxes, and judicial fines. Perjjumka,
volavaru (import), horavaru (export) and the like were customs levied on
trade and articles of merchandise. Angadidere (tax on shops), gaanadere (tax
on oil mills), navidadere (tax on barbers) and the like were professional
taxes. Manevana (house-tax) and hosatilu (tax on the threshold) were
property taxes levied by the local bodies. Dandaya was the revenue collected
from judicial fines. The tax levied on marriages (maduveya-sunka) was the
most interesting feature of the Chalukyan administration.
Education and Literature
The temple played an important role in imparting education, maintaining
students and teachers and promoting arts. The temple received munificent
gifts from all people, from the king to the common man. In Karnataka, the