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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 1060Book's First Page
various stages in the feudal structure led to a wider diffusion of the income from the land. This weakened the position of those at both ends of the scale— the cultivator and king who suffered from the diversion of the income into the hands of the intermediaries. So the only prosperous class in north India during this period seems to be the feudal lords. But the surplus wealth of these feudatories was not invested in craft production or trade. It was, instead, used for conspicuous consumption. The palatial homes of the feudatories were richly ornamented, and much of the income was spent in building magnificent temples. No wonder these temples attracted invaders whose desire to achieve religious merit by destroying idols was much less than their greed for plunder. CHOLAS AND OTHERS OF SOUTH INDIA Chola Empire Vijayalaya The capture of Tanjore from Muttarayar, an ally of the Pandyas, around AD 850 by Vijayalaya and his founding of the temple of Nishumbhasudini (Durga)—these were the first steps in the rise of the Cholas, who were at that time feudatories of the Pallavas. Aditya He was responsible for murdering his Pallava overlord Aparajita after defeating him in a battle and occupying the entire Tondaimandalam. Aditya next conquered the Kongu country also. He is said to have built Siva temples on both banks of the Kaveri. Parantaka I At the start of his reign, he invaded the Pandya territory and assumed the title of ‘Maduraikonda’ (Conqueror of Madurai). When the Chola country was invaded in 916 by the Rashtrakuta Krishna II, a decisive battle was fought at Vallala (North Arcot District), which ended in disaster for the Rashtrakutas. But Parantaka began to experience increasing difficulty in defending his empire from 940. Krishna III, one of the greatest Rashtrakuta rulers, defeated Parantaka in the famous battle of Takkolam (near Arkonam) in 949 and succeeded in occupying a large part of the northern half of the Chola empire.