viceroys, vishayas under vishayapatis, and finally the villages under
gramapatis. The administration of the fiefs also followed the same pattern.
But the village self-government in north India weakened during this period
due to the domination of the feudal chiefs, while at the same time it was at its
best in south India under the Cholas.
Military Administration The army consisted of royal retainers or the
personal army of the king and the contingents supplied by the feudal lords.
This lack of cohesion was, in fact, responsible for the lack of unity in the
armies of the rulers of this period. It consisted of an infantry, cavalry and
warelephants, but the cavalry was neither numerous nor were the majority of
horses of fine breed. Above all, military service practically came to be the
monopoly of Rajputs. Consequently 90 per cent of the people had no
opportunity of sharing in the defence of their land and they did not put up any
strong opposition to the authority of any military usurper.
Revenue Administration Taxation during this period was heavier
compared to the ancient times. This was so because expenditure over the
royal household and the court continued to increase. The military budget also
continued to be inflated because of ceaseless fighting. Naturally, therefore,
the burden on the tax-payer became heavier.
Judicial Administration Provision for justice had been laid down as one
of the principal duties of the state in India. But the rulers during this period
did not pay adequate attention to it. In the bhuktis there was a dandanayaka
who seems to have been in charge of justice, police and prisons
simultaneously. But there is no mention of any other officer who might have
been principally in charge of justice. So it seems that most of the disputes
were settled by arbitration through the caste and village panchayats.
Social Mobility and Position of Women
Different Types of Feudal Chiefs
Some feudal lords were government officers who were increasingly paid not
in cash but by assigning to them revenue-bearing villages. Others were
defeated kings and their supporters who continued to enjoy the revenues of
limited areas. Some others were local hereditary chiefs or military