tribes like the Gonds, and the Bhars. The evidence of a close connection
between the Chandels and the Gonds is particularly strong. The Chandel
Rajputs were originally Hinduised Bhars or Gonds or both, who became
Kshatriyas on attaining political power. The Gaharwars similarly are
associated with the Bhars; the Bundelas and the northern Rathors are
offshoots of the Gaharwars. As a general rule, the Rajputs formed by the
social promotion of aborigines were inimical to the Rajputs descended from
Upendra The kingdom of the Paramaras was situated to the west of that of
the Kalachuris. Upendra, also known as Krishnaraja, was one of the founders
of the Paramara family. Dhara, modern Dhar, in Madhya Pradesh, was the
capital of the Paramaras.
Siyaka II The history of the Paramaras really begins with the accession of
Siyaka. His greatest triumph was to defy the authority of the Rashtrakutas,
acknowledged so far by the Paramaras. The death of the Rashtrakuta, Krishna
III presented him an opportunity and he declared himself independent. Siyaka
secured large slices of territory both from Pratihara as well as the Rashtrakuta
empires. Of his two sons—Munja and Sindhuraja—he was succeeded by the
Munja He was the most glamorous king of the dynasty. He was a great
warrior and many stories of his gallantry are sung in ballads. He defeated the
Kalachuri king, Yuvaraja II. His major effort was directed towards expanding
the area of his kingdom in Rajputana. Munja next defeated Mularaja of the
Chalukya dynasty of Anahilapataka.
    The greatest enemy of Munja was the Chalukya Taila II, who had
established his authority over the Deccan after overthrowing the Rashtrakutas
and wanted to assert his authority over Malava which once belonged to them.
Taila invaded Malava no less than six times, but on all occasions he was
repulsed by Munja. In order to get rid of this chronic menace, Munja
launched an aggressive campaign against Taila II but was entrapped by the
enemy and put to death.
Sindhuraja Munja was succeeded by his younger brother Sindhuraja who