pay regular tribute and furnish a stipulated number of troops.
     The Rashtrakuta empire was divided into several provinces or rashtras
which were further divided into vishayas or districts. The vishayas were
subdivided into bhuktis consisting of 50 to 70 villages. The bhuktis were
further subdivided into smaller groups of 10 to 20 villages each.
     The rashtrapati was at the head of the administration of the province. The
rashtrapatis had considerable powers over their subordinates. Vishayapatis or
district officers and bhogapatis or tahsil officers enjoyed the same power as
rashtrapatis within their smaller areas. Some of the vishayapatis enjoyed
feudatory status like the provincial governors. Bhogapatis in charge of
bhuktis were appointed directly by the central government. Bhogapatis
carried on the revenue administration with the help of hereditary revenue
officers called nalgavundas or desagramakutas. The village administration
was carried on by the village headman and the village accountant, whose
offices were usually hereditary.
     The village assemblies or councils played an effective role in the
administration of the village. The village assembly was divided into a number
of sub-committees. Each subcommittee was in charge of a specific subject
like the village tank, the village temple, roads, and the like. Rashtrakuta
records refer, on rare occasions, to vishaya-maharattas (elders of the district)
and rashtra-maharattas (elders of the province), suggesting the existence of
popular bodies at the district and provincial headquarters.
Sanskrit literature was widely patronised. There were many scholars in the
Rashtrakuta courts. Trivikrama, the author of the Nalachampu, flourished in
the early 10th century. The Kavirahasya of Halayudha was composed in the
reign of Krishna III.
     As the Rashtrakutas were patrons of Jainism, it is natural that Jaina
literature should have made considerable progress. Akalanka and Vidyananda
wrote Ashtasati and Ashtasahasri, two commentaries on the Aptamimansa. In
the field of logic Manikyanandin wrote Parikshamukhasastra in the latter
half of the 8th century. He also wrote an independent work called
Nyayakaumudichandrodaya. Amoghavarsha I’s reign saw the high point of
Jaina literature in the Rashtrakuta  period. Harisena, the spiritual preceptor of